Basics Of Bookkeeping

What is Bookkeeping?

Bookkeeping is the process of recording financial transactions. These transactions may include sales, purchases, receipts, and payments. Bookkeeping helps businesses track their income and expenses, which is essential for making sound financial decisions.

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The goal of bookkeeping is to ensure that a company’s financial statements are accurate and up-to-date. Financial statements include a company’s balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement. By tracking expenses and income, bookkeepers can help business owners make informed decisions about their finances.

Manual Bookkeeping

Manual bookkeeping involves recording transactions in a journal and posting them to ledgers. This can be time consuming and error-prone.

Accounting Software

Accounting software automates the bookkeeping process. It can track financial transactions, generate reports, and create invoices. Accounting software can be customised to meet the specific needs of your business.

There are several different accounting software packages available, including:

– QuickBooks


– Xero

Each package has its strengths and weaknesses. You need to choose the package that best meets the needs of your business.

Many businesses hire bookkeepers to handle their finances. Bookkeepers are responsible for tracking all financial activity, preparing reports, and ensuring compliance with tax laws. They may also be involved in budgeting and forecasting.

Methods in Tracking Finances

Businesses use different methods to track their finances. The most common method is the double-entry accounting system. This system involves recording every transaction in two different account books. One book tracks expenses, while the other tracks income.

Another common method of bookkeeping is the cash basis method. This method records cash inflows and outflows, regardless of when the transaction occurred. For example, if a company sells goods on credit, the sale would be recorded as an income transaction even though the customer has not yet paid for the goods.

Bookkeeping can be a time-consuming process, but businesses need to keep accurate records. By tracking expenses and income, business owners can make informed decisions about their finances and stay on top of their financial status.

Types Of Bookkeeping

There are different types of bookkeeping that businesses can use. The three most common types are cash basis, accrual basis, and modified accrual basis.

Cash Basis

Cash basis accounting records income and expenses when cash is received or paid out. This is the simplest type of accounting and is often used by small businesses.

Cash basis accounting records transactions when money changes hands.

Accrual Basis

Accrual basis accounting records income and expenses when they are earned or incurred, regardless of when the cash is received or paid out. This is the most common type of accounting and is used by larger businesses.

Accrual basis accounting records transactions when they occur, whether or not money has changed hands yet.

Most businesses use accrual basis accounting because it provides a more accurate picture of a company’s financial health. However, some businesses find cash basis accounting more appropriate for their needs.

Modified Accrual Basis

Modified accrual basis accounting records income and expenses when they are earned, but only records expenses when they are paid. This type of accounting is a hybrid of cash and accrual basis accounting. It is often used by governments and not-for-profit organizations.

Regardless of the bookkeeping method used, it is important to keep accurate records of all financial transactions. This information can help businesses make informed decisions about their finances and stay on top of their business’s financial health.

Which type of bookkeeping a business uses depends on its size, complexity, and industry. It is important to choose the right type of bookkeeping, as it can affect the accuracy of financial statements and how taxes are reported. Talk to an accountant or bookkeeper to determine which type of accounting is best for your business.